DC PROSTITUTION-SOLICITATION LAWS

This blog expands and highlights some of the statutory penalties as well as definitions relating to prostitution, solicitation, procuring and pandering for prostitution. Prostitution is generally defined as exchange of sexual act or contact in return for money. The elements of the crime require meeting of minds. That is there must be some basic agreement offering money for sex. Often times the solicitation or prostitution charges are brought via under cover sting operation. In these operations, the decoy (police officer) entices solicitation and as soon as an agreement in principle is made to exchange money for sex, the back up team moves in for an arrest. However, often times the transaction is not legally complete, or the exchange is not sufficiently concrete meeting the elements of the crime. These arrests are nevertheless made, and charges brought. The courtroom aspect of the case can also be complicated as the complaining witness is generally the police office. There are no other witnesses to collaborate either testimony. So the trial by judge would be basically a credibility contest between the police officer and the defendant (“john”). Thus these cases require particularly higher levels of litigation skills and painstaking attention to details and a
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Categories: Criminal Defense.

DC CHILD ABUSE AND NEGLECT LAWS

This blog focuses on the DC child neglect and abuse laws and some of the procedural aspect of a court involved case. Generally a child neglect and abuse case commences with reporting of some kind to the CFSA (“Child and Family Services”). There are those who are according to the DC Neglect Statute are mandatory reporters. The school and all those involved and have contact with the child at school setting, doctor’s offices, social workers, hospitals, police officers, etc. Regardless, when a report to hotline has been made, an investigative social worker is assigned to conduct a preliminary investigation. That would involve meeting the reporter in person and discussing some of the specifics, visiting the child at the school setting to investigate child’s environment, and finally to meet with the parents and visits the home. Often times in cases when there is allegation of physical abuse, the social worker may have the child medically screened or even evaluated and Children’s hospital or other clinics or medical facilities. If the social worker determines that there is enough direct and supporting evidence to support the claim of child neglect and abuse, a court petition is drafted and filed and an initial hearing
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Categories: Family Law.

DC CHILD SUPPORT LAWS — HIGHLIGHTS

This blog highlights some of the basic DC Child Support Guidelines and the related child support calculation and obligation. Along with divorce, separation, and filing of child custody papers, invariably and eventually the child support aspect of separation has to be addressed. If the matter is court involved, that is – parties have not reached a global agreement addressing divorce, alimony, custody and support – then the court will most likely apply the Child Support Guidelines (hereafter “guidelines”) to determine each parent’s portion of support. The guidelines enumerate and provide an equitable formula to calculate support for each parent principally proportionate to income and time spent caring for the child. The guidelines allow taking into consideration factors other than income and physical custody. Such factors such as other children in care of each parent, medical/insurance expenses covered by each parent, extraordinary medical expenses, school/daycare expenses, to name a few. The court may also allow departure from the guidelines in cases where compared incomes are grossly disproportionate, there is a property settlement award enriching one parent, other dependent children in the household, extraordinary debt obligations, other child support payments received for other children, extreme hardship, etc. The court may impute income
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Categories: Family Law.

RECENT COURT OF APPEALS DECISION: REVERSAL OF BURGLARY CHARGE

The Court of Appeals in SYDNOR v. UNITED STATES decided on January 14, 2016, reversed the lower court’s burglary conviction and issued an order for the trial court to enter a judgment for unlawful entry instead. The evidence revealed that the appellant had entered a fenced construction site and had removed steal pipes from the yard. The burglary statute in part states: “whoever shall, either in the night or in the daytime, break and enter, or enter without breaking, . . . any yard where any lumber, coal, or other goods or chattels are deposited and kept for the purpose of trade, with intent to break and carry away any part thereof or any fixture or other thing attached to or connected with the same, or to commit any criminal offense, shall be guilty of burglary in the second degree.” At trial, the defense argued that because the construction material stored in the yard were not for the purpose of “trade” as they were not for sale, thus factually the evidence did not support a burglary charge and that a judgment of acquittal should be entered. The trial court disagreed holding that the phrase “goods . . . kept for
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Categories: Criminal Defense.

DC CHILD CUSTODY LITIGATION: WHAT IS THE BEST INTEREST CRITERIA

This blog highlights specifically the legal definition of the “best interest of the child” as relates to DC child custody litigation: All cases involving and relating to the children in family matters; termination of parental rights/adoption, guardianship and child custody and neglect – all invariably use the “best interest of the child” criteria as a paramount factor in the reaching the final order and the legal analysis substantiating that order. The court looks at different but similar legal elements in each family matter to define the “best interest of the child” criteria. For the DC child custody litigation in awarding physical and legal custody to one parent or jointly or shared in some fashion – – the court defines the relevant factors as such: 1)The child’s bond with each parent and the child’s desire and preference when applicable as to where he/she wants to reside. In the District the age of consent is generally 14, and thus, at that age or above the court will require and factor in heavily the child’s preference. 2) Each parent’s position/desire will be balanced as to both physical and legal custody arrangement.   Parents willingness to work with each other, conflict resolution, outcome of mediation
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Categories: Family Law.

RECENT COURT OF APPEALS DECISION: DISCLOSURE OF JENCKS/DISCOVERY

In Hernandez v. U.S. decided on January 14, 2016, the DC Court of Appeals affirmed the assault charge but remanded for further review by the trial court on the issue of non-disclosure of the Jencks material and whether a new trial would be warranted. Factually, Hernandez was charged with domestic violence assault against his girlfriend. Although she had technically denied the assault, due to some language barriers and other significant independent evidence — the trial court’s findings were affirmed on that issue alone. Specifically, an independent witness had seen the defendant choke Ms. Argueta-Avila/the complainant and then saw her fall to the ground. The Officer at the scene described the complainant frantic, shaken and crying with scratches on her chin and arms. Moreover, the record contained testimony from the complainant that every time he drinks he does this, meaning puts his hands on her. The trial court credited the complainant’s testimony that the defendant grabbed her shirt and pushed her. The trial court recognized that when she had told the police that Mr. Hernandez did not assault her — she meant that he had not hit her, but that legally there was sufficient evidence of assault. However, the Court of Appeals
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Categories: Uncategorized.

DC ADOPTION LAWS: LEGAL PARAMETERS

DC adoptions can be categorized as Child and Family Services (“CFSA”) involved or private adoptions. The legal paradigm remains the same. However CFSA involvement could and generally does complicate the process as there are additional requirements to make the child eligible for the federal subsidy. Such requirements are adoption licensing, home study/visits, Interstate Compact (“ICPC”) when applicable, adoption final report, adoption subsidy agreement, federal and state police as well as Child Protection Registry (“CPS” ) clearances just to name a few. Once the CFSA procedural requirements are met, there still remains the legal threshold to completing the adoption and entering of the final order and decree. This blog however will focus on these legal requirements and the legal elements that must be established by clear and convincing evidence. After filing an adoption petition content of which is strictly confidential, the court will issue a show cause order to the biological parents with a court date for service to be completed. At the show cause hearing, assuming the parents are properly served with the show cause order, the court may move forward with the hearing. The parents may either enter a written consent, or contest the adoption. If contested, the court
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Categories: Family Law.

RECENT COURT OF APPEALS DECISION: ATTEMPTED THREATS REVERSAL

In Milton v. U.S., decided by the DC Court of Appeals on December 24, 2015, the Court reversed Milton’s conviction for attempted threats against the arresting police officer. Officers had responded to an unlawful entry call on July 5, 2015, and Milton having been identified as one of the culprits was placed under arrest, but while on the curbside and cuffed, uttered to one of the arresting officers that “take that gun and badge off and I’ll fuck you up,” and moreover, that “too bad it’s not like the old days where fucking up an officer is a misdemeanor.” These words were uttered calmly and in a conversational tone but were the basis for the attempted threats conviction at the trial level. The Court of Appeals enumerated the elements of the offense, that 1) the defendant uttered words to another person; 2) those words were of such nature as to convey fear of serious bodily harm or injury to the ordinary hearer… The Court in reversing the conviction carefully construed the circumstances and the nature of the words uttered by the defendant and whether such in fact did or would have incited a reasonable fear of physical bodily harm on
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Categories: Criminal Defense.

MIRANDA WARNING/CUSTODIAL INTERROGATION – RECENT COURT OF APPEALS DECISION

In Morton v. U.S., the DC Court of Appeals recently reversed defendant’s conviction for one count of felony and one count of misdemeanor Receiving Stolen Property (RSP), due to Miranda violations denial of motion to suppress at the trial level. Officers had approached three individuals engaged in suspicious activity with their hands, appeared to be a drug transaction, Morton, one of three, began running as officers questioned the group – chase ensued and Morton dropped a wallet during chase which was later recovered. Morton was apprehended, chuffed and questioned about the wallet, why he had ran from the officers, questioned about his identity and his correct name – all of which gathered enough information to discover Morton’s true name, and to arrest him on a open warrant and later connect him by the wallet recovered to a burglary and slew of other related charges. A motion to suppress statements made by Morton to the Officers was denied at the trial, on appeal the Court of Appeal in short determined that because Mr. Morton was in Miranda custody during the police questioning, he was entitled to Fifth Amendment protections before the officers questioned him, and therefore, the trial court erred in
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Categories: Criminal Defense.

COURT OF APPEALS DECISION: REVERSING DRUG POSSESSION CONVICTION

In OLUSHOLA AKINMBONI V. UNITED STATES, decided on November 19, 2015, the Court of Appeals reversed the defendant’s conviction for possession of marijuana, BZP, and drug paraphernalia holding that the cellblock cavity search of the defendant was constitutionally impermissible. Here the defendant was pulled over during a valid traffic stop, and marijuana was observed in plain view and the arrest made. The next day at the courthouse cellblock, the defendant was searched again and during that search the US Marshall had observed plastic bags partially protruding from the defendant’s cavity. Defendant was ordered to remove the items (several bags) and thus additional possession charges were lodged against the defendant. The Court of Appeals in holding that the cavity search at the cellblock unreasonable, highlighted the following: The Fourth Amendment at its core prohibits unreasonable searches and seizures and in the absence of an exception, warrantless searches or seizures are inherently unreasonable and the evidence gathered during such searches are invariably suppressed and are inadmissible. Moreover, if a search or seizure is conducted without a valid warrant, the government always bears the burden that the search and the seizure of the evidence was reasonable. There is also a balancing act in
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Categories: Criminal Defense.